NO / EN

Norid AS

Abels gt. 5, Teknobyen

Phone +47 73 55 73 55

RDAP is a lookup service for domain data. The letters stand for Registration Data Access Protocol. Norid’s RDAP service is based on the international RDAP protocol. The service is designed as a REST-API and is therefore well suited for automated lookups.

RDAP is the successor to the current whois protocol. The service is currently under development at many registries, and at Norid as well.

Access

The service is available at:

rdap.norid.no

The service is in production.

Testing

The service is available at:

rdap.test.norid.no

Technical documentation

RDAP is considered to be the successor to the current whois protocol and includes a number of improvements compared to this protocol.

  • The transfer format for lookup data is clearly specified as JSON format, and is easy to process automatically.
  • Character sets are uniquely specified.
  • The protocol offers the option of so-called ‘layered access’. This means that privileged users can be authenticated and gain access to more data compared to anonymous users. This could include more detailed data or a larger lookup rate.

How the service works

The service is available at the following URL:

rdap.norid.no

The service supports lookups of domain names, contact data (entities) and name servers. Some examples:

Domain name lookup:

https://rdap.norid.no/domain/norid.no

Lookup of contact person with personal handle as the key:

https://rdap.norid.no/entity/NH55R-NORID

Lookup of domain provider with provider ID as the key:

https://rdap.norid.no/entity/reg1-NORID

Lookup of name server with name server handle as the key:

https://rdap.norid.no/nameserver_handle/X11H-NORID

Search for name server with a certain host name:

https://rdap.norid.no/nameservers?name=x.nic.no

RDAP is designed as a web service. Queries are submitted as URLs, to which the server responds with data in JSON format. RDAP uses the HTTP method GET to look up data on an object. The HTTP method HEAD is used to submit a query for whether an object exists.

Data lookup

Data for an object (domain name, contact or name server) can be looked up using the HTTP method GET. This is equivalent to a lookup in the whois protocol. The response to the lookup is the return code 200 OK and a set of JSON data if the object exists, and 404 Not Found if it does not.

Query for whether an object exists

A query for whether an object (domain name, contact or name server) is registered is submitted using the HTTP method HEAD. This is equivalent to a lookup in the DAS protocol. The query returns the return code 200 OK if the object exists, and 404 Not Found if it does not

Query for unavailable domains

Some domains are not available for registration. The negative answer from a HEAD request does not show whether the domain can be registered or not. To see whether a domain can be registered, a GET request must be used. For a domain not registered, a 404 Not Found message is returned. Additional information is then provided if it is not available for registration.

Local adjustments

The RDAP protocol is an international standard, but it allows local extensions and adjustments. Norid’s RDAP server has a local extension that enables lookups of name servers based on name server handles. Please note that this extension does not change the behaviour or return data for any of the other standardized queries. A general RDAP client should therefore be able to handle standardized queries without any compatibility issues.

Extension for looking up name servers

The standard lookup for name server objects use name server host names as the lookup key. In Norid’s registration system, name server lookups keyed to host names will not be unique, as the system may contain several name server objects with the same host name. We have therefore chosen to offer a separate lookup for name servers based on name server handles:

https://rdap.norid.no/nameserver_handle/X11H-NORID

These lookups will return a data object formatted the same way as standard RDAP lookups for name servers.

Authenticated access

Authenticated access gives the client extended data in the query results, and an extended set of query methods. RDAP clients authenticates by using https 'basic authentication' as described in the standard RFC-2617.

Administration of users for authenticated access

All registrars can authenticate their access to RDAP. As a registrar, you must then do as follows:

  • A user for RDAP must be created. This is done in the registrarweb on the user administration page, https://registrar.norid.no, in the same way as for registrar web users (for the test system RDAP, rdap.test.norid.no, the test registrarweb, https://registrar.test.norid.no, is used).
  • The access right 'rdap_access' must be given to the user.
  • After the user has been created, it will be available for use after a few minutes. The service can now be accessed with a client supporting 'basic authentication'. The full username to be used in the query is on the form <username>@<regNNN>. The configuration and use of authentication in the RDAP client will depend on the software which is used. In the following examples, curl and wget are being used as clients. Here, the registrar 'reg9876' authenticates with user 'rdapuser' and the password 'mysecret123'.

Authenticated query using curl:

% curl --user rdapuser@reg9876:mysecret123 https://rdap.norid.no/domain/aa.no

Authenticated query using wget:

% wget -O - --auth-no-challenge --http-user=rdapuser@reg9876 --http-password=mysecret123 https://rdap.norid.no/domain/aa.no

Access restrictions for authenticated queries

For authenticated queries, the access is restricted by an IP filter. Each registrar must register the client IP that they want to use for the queries. This is done in the registrar web, under 'registry access / registrarwhois IP addresses'.

Extended data access

Anonymous queries return results with restricted data content. With authenticated queries, more data becomes available.

Domain lookup

For domain lookup, the result will contain information about the domain holder. The data returned for the domain holder is the same as in the direct query for the domain holder contact object (see next section).

Contact object lookup (entity lookup)

Anonymous lookup for contact objects is only available for role contacts. Authenticated clients can lookup all contact types, i.e. roles, persons and organizations:

https://rdap.norid.no/entity/NT1O
https://rdap.norid.no/entity/AA253P

The data content returned will depend on the contact type (role, person, organization), and on whether the registrar doing the lookup is the sponsoring registrar for the contact.

Searches

Searches in RDAP makes it possible to retrieve lists of domains, contacts and nameservers, based on various search keys. With anonymous access, only search on nameservers is available, with hostname as the key. With authenticated access, other search functions are available, as shown in the following examples. The search result will only contain objects for which the client registrar is the sponsoring registrar of the object. For some search keys, the wildcard character '*' can be used. By default, the results from a search has a limited data content for each object. The complete object data can afterwards be retrieved with a direct lookup of the object. See also section 'partial response', on how to adjust the amount of data in the search result.

Examples on domain name searches:

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?registrant=NT1O

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?identity=985821585

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?nsIp=128.39.8.40

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?nsLdhName=*.labnic.no

Examples on nameserver searches:

https://rdap.norid.no/nameservers?name=*.labnic.no

https://rdap.norid.no/nameservers?ip=128.39.8.40

Examples on contact object searches:

https://rdap.norid.no/entities?fn=norid*

https://rdap.norid.no/entities?identity=985821585

Paging and counting

For searches with many hits, the result message will only contain the first results. The result will additionally have a reference to a search query for the next results, making it possible to browse through the complete set of results. By using the parameter 'count=true', the result message will show a count of the total number of results:

Example: https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no&count=true

The returned message contains a link which can be followed to the next page:

    "paging_metadata": {
        "links": [
            {
                "href": "https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no&cursor=O1GW1xKrewPkUHzQwIrTTQ%3D%3D&count=1",
                "rel": "next",
                ...

Sorting

It is possible to set the sorting order of the results in the result message.

  • For domains, the following sorting keys can be used: registrationDate, lastChangedDate, expirationDate, name
  • For nameservers, the following sorting keys can be used: registrationDate, lastChangedDate, name
  • For contact objects, the following sorting keys can be used: registrationDate, lastChangedDate, handle, fn, org, country, cc, city

Sorting on expiration date:

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no&sort=expirationDate

Sorting on expiration date, descending:

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no&sort=expirationDate:d

Sorting on country code, then city:

https://rdap.norid.no/entities?fn=norid*&sort=cc,city

Partial response in searches

By default, the result message from a search contains limited data for each of the objects. With the parameter 'fieldSet' it is possible to change this. Setting it to the value 'fieldSet=full', complete data for each object is returned. Setting it the value 'fieldSet=id', the default limited data amount is returned.

Examples:

https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no&fieldSet=full
https://rdap.norid.no/domains?name=nord*.no&fieldSet=id

Rate limiting

The RDAP service has two rate limits — both limit the number of lookups made from any given IP address. One rate limit allows a maximum of 300 GET queries from any one IP address and 3000 HEAD queries per 24 hours in a sliding window. The other rate limit allows each IP address access to a maximum of 10 lookups (GET or HEAD) per minute. If either of these limits is exceeded, lookups will return 429 Too many requests.

Software for RDAP clients

RDAP is a web service, so any web browser can, in principle, be used as an RDAP client, as long as it is capable of receiving and presenting JSON data. Command-line clients, such as wget and curl, can be used to retrieve data for scripting:

GET:

% curl https://rdap.norid.no/domain/norid.no

% wget -O - https://rdap.norid.no/domain/norid.no

HEAD:

% curl --head https://rdap.norid.no/domain/norid.no

% wget --method=HEAD https://rdap.norid.no/domain/norid.no

There are other, more specialized clients that can present JSON data in a more readable way. The following clients are available in open source code:

OpenRDAP - command line client written in Go.

NicInfo - command line client written in Ruby.

References

A detailed description of how the service works can be found in the RFC specifications for the RDAP protocol:

RDAP extensions and related RFC documents

Published: 8 July 2020
Updated: 13 January 2023